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I thought about my relationships with the indigenous people of, for example, the indigenous Lenape people of where I live in New York. Or now I think of, what’s my relationship with the indigenous Duwamish people of the land I’m standing on right now? And this idea about the relationships that we have with people we’ve never met is going to be a through line. I’m going to keep returning to this idea throughout this talk.

And so, already in 2015, we see that it’s about 8% of all global electricity usage associated with communications technology, which is an incredibly significant percentage. Data centers alone, according to the estimates that I found, consume somewhere between 1% and 2% of global electricity. And just to put these numbers in some kind of scale to give you some perspective, it’s already been projected that within just two years, the electricity usage of computing is projected to outstrip that of aviation or shipping. OK. So all of the planes, all of the boats that are constantly going around, circling the earth, transporting people and goods. All right. We’re talking about an enormous physical and material impact.